Year: 2018 | Month: December | Volume 8 | Issue 3

Fetal Membranes and Associated Complications in Dairy Animals: A Review


DOI:Coming soon...

Abstract:

Fetal membrane is temporary organ that feeds the fetus intrauterine. It also permits transfer of oxygen and nutrients from mother to fetus and release of carbon dioxide and waste products from fetus. Placenta is partly maternal and partly embryonic in origin. Actual mixing of maternal and fetal blood is not possible due to placental membrane. After conception uterine contraction and tonicity decreases to retain blastocyst in situ position in uterus. Protein factors like blastokinin, trophoblastin has role in maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP). Placenta of dairy animals is polycotyledonary and non-deciduate type. Prevention of RFM includes reducing stress, improving comfort and balance ration during transition period. Proper exercise, Vitamins (Vitamin A, E and Selenium), minerals along with infection control are common factors which control post-parturient problems including retention of placenta. Use of ecbolic, collagenase, antibiotics, herbal preparation and hormones are common practice used by farmers and farms with very positive effect i.e., reducing infertility.





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